The IMF`s mandate is to oversee the international monetary and financial system and to oversee the economic and financial policies of its 188 member countries. This activity is called «surveillance» and facilitates international cooperation. Since the demise of the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system in the early 1970s, surveillance has evolved largely through changes in procedures rather than the adoption of new commitments. The responsibilities of the fund have been transferred from those of the guardian to those of the member policy supervisor. The Fund generally analyses the adequacy of each member country`s economic and financial policies for orderly economic growth and assesses the impact of these policies on other countries and on the global economy. In 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) succeeded GATT as the global supervisor of world trade liberalization following the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations. While the gatt`s focus was primarily on goods, the WTO went much further by including policies in the areas of services, intellectual property and investment. The WTO had more than 145 members at the beginning of the 21st century, and China joined in 2001. However, all of these protectionist measures were moderate compared to the previous mercantilist period, and despite the environment against free trade, including a series of isolated trade wars, international trade flows continued to increase. But if international trade continued to develop despite many obstacles, the First World War would prove fatal to the trade liberalization that began in the early 19th century. As a result, many countries have turned away from the multilateral process and turned to bilateral or regional trade agreements.
One such agreement is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which entered into force in January 1994. Under NAFTA, the United States, Canada and Mexico agreed to phase out all tariffs on trade in goods and reduce restrictions on trade in services and foreign investment over a decade. The United States also has bilateral agreements with Israel, Jordan, Singapore, and Australia, and is negotiating bilateral or regional trade agreements with countries in Latin America, Asia, and the Pacific. The European Union has also concluded free trade agreements with other countries around the world. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States that creates a trilateral trading bloc in North America. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 1994. It replaced the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. and Canada.
Ex-Im Bank`s mission is to create and preserve U.S. jobs by financing the sale of U.S. exports to international buyers. The Ex-Im Bank is the main government agency responsible for supporting the export of U.S. goods and services through various credit, guarantee, and insurance programs. In general, its programs are available to any U.S. exporting company, regardless of its size. The bank is licensed by the U.S. Congress as a Crown corporation; It was last chartered for a five-year term in 2006. Its Charter sets out the Bank`s powers and limits.
This includes the principle that the former im bank is not competing with private sector lenders, but provides financing for transactions that would not otherwise take place because commercial lenders are unable or unwilling to accept the political or commercial risks associated with the agreement. The EU functions through a system of independent supranational institutions and intergovernmental decisions negotiated by the Member States. The important institutions of the EU are the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Central Bank. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens. The EU has developed a single market through a single system of laws in force in all Member States. Within the Schengen area (which includes EU and third countries), passport controls have been abolished. EU policy aims to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital, to legislate in the areas of justice and home affairs and to maintain common policies in the areas of trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. A monetary union, the euro area, was created in 1999 and has consisted of 17 Member States since January 2012.
Thanks to the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a limited role in external relations and defence. Permanent diplomatic missions have been established throughout the world. The EU is represented at the United Nations, the WTO, the G8 and the G20. Explain the role of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in ensuring free trade Deep trade agreements provide an important institutional infrastructure for regional integration. .